By Miriam Tramer
A unique feature of the Israeli kibbutz has been the totally communal child-care arrangements. These were made possible only by the complete social ownership of all property — even, in the early days, to the extent of personal clothing and effects.
The commitment to the ideal of communal work and ownership extended to communal upbringing of the children. It was strongly believed that the bourgeois family was at the root of individualistic impulses and that communal child rearing would inculcate cooperative ones.