World-renowned political organiser and one of Africa's most celebrated poets, Dennis Vincent Brutus, died in his sleep early on December 26 in Cape Town, aged 85.
Even in his last days, Brutus was fully engaged, advocating social protest against those responsible for climate change and promoting reparations to black South Africans from corporations that benefited from apartheid.
He was a leading plaintiff in the Alien Tort Claims Act case against major firms that is now making progress in the US court system.
Brutus was born in Harare in 1924, but his South African parents soon moved to Port Elizabeth. He entered Fort Hare University on a full scholarship in 1940, graduating with a distinction in English and a second major in psychology.
Further studies in law at the University of the Witwatersrand were cut short by imprisonment for anti-apartheid activism.
Brutus's political activity initially included extensive journalistic reporting, organising with the Teachers' League and the Congress movement, and leading the new South African Sports Association as an alternative to white sports bodies.
After his banning in 1961 under the Suppression of Communism Act, he fled to Mozambique but was captured and deported to Johannesburg. There, in 1963, Brutus was shot in the back while attempting to escape police custody.
Memorably, it was in front of Anglo American Corporation headquarters that he nearly died while awaiting an ambulance reserved for Blacks.
While recovering, he was held in the Johannesburg Fort Prison cell that more than a half-century earlier housed Mahatma Gandhi. Brutus was transferred to Robben Island where he was jailed in the cell next to Nelson Mandela
In 1964-65, he wrote the collections Sirens Knuckles Boots and Letters to Martha, two of the richest poetic expressions of political incarceration.
Subsequently forced into exile, Brutus resumed simultaneous careers as a poet and anti-apartheid campaigner in London.
Working for the International Defence and Aid Fund, he was instrumental in achieving the apartheid regime's expulsion from the 1968 Mexican Olympics and from the Olympic movement in 1970.
Moving to the US in 1971, Brutus served as a professor of literature and African studies at Northwestern (Chicago) and Pittsburgh, and defeated high-profile efforts by the Reagan administration to deport him during the early 1980s.
He wrote numerous poems, 90 of which will be published posthumously next year by Worcester State University. He helped organise major African writers' organisations with his colleagues Wole Soyinka and Chinua Achebe.
Following the political transition in South Africa, Brutus resumed activities with grassroots social movements in his home country.
In the late 1990s he also became a pivotal figure in the global justice movement and a featured speaker each year at the World Social Forum, as well as at protests against the World Trade Organisation, G8, Bretton Woods Institutions and the New Partnership for Africa's Development.
Brutus continued to serve in the anti-racism, reparations and economic justice movements as a leading strategist until his death. In August 2009, he called for the "Seattling" of the recent Copenhagen summit because sufficient greenhouse gas emissions cuts and North-South "climate debt" payments were not on the agenda.
His final academic appointment was an Honorary Professor at the University of KwaZulu-Natal Centre for Civil Society. For that university's press and Haymarket Press, he published the autobiographical Poetry and Protest in 2006.
Among numerous recent accolades were the US War Resisters League peace award in September 2009, two Doctor of Literature degrees conferred at Rhodes and Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in April 2009 — following six other honorary doctorates — and the Lifetime Achievement Award of the South African government Department of Arts and Culture in 2008.
Brutus was also awarded membership in the South African Sports Hall of Fame in 2007, but rejected it on grounds that the institution had not confronted the country's racist history.
He also won the Paul Robeson and Langston Hughes awards.
The memory of Dennis Brutus will remain everywhere there is struggle against injustice. Uniquely courageous, consistent and principled, Brutus bridged the global and local, politics and culture, class and race, the old and the young, the red and green.
He was an emblem of solidarity with all those peoples oppressed and environments wrecked by the power of capital and state elites — hence some in the African National Congress government labelled him "ultraleft".
But given his role as a world-class poet, Brutus showed that social justice advocates can have both bread and roses.
[Patrick Bond directs the Centre for Civil Society at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.. Abridged from www.links.org.au]