Hamza has memories that no 17-year-old should have.
Last year, he was arrested in the middle of the night on suspicion that he threw stones at Israeli settlers near his school in the West Bank. He was handcuffed, blindfolded and beaten on the way to interrogation.
“They asked me when did I throw stones, and how, what time exactly, at night or in the morning, and who was there with me,” he said.
“When they took me to the prison they put me in a small cell. They used to throw the food through the space between the door and the floor.
“We had our meals in the same place where we peed. Sometimes they stripped us; they stripped us and mocked us, and beat us at the same time.”
Hamza spent five months in Ofer military prison. He had no contact with his parents or family, who were denied the right to visit him.
Recent estimates have found that Israel arrests and detains about 700 Palestinian children annually. This reality has forced Palestinians in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, to develop programs that address the widespread trauma these children exhibit when released from prison.
Founded in 1989, shortly after the start of the first Palestinian intifada, the East Jerusalem YMCA rehabilitation program is one such. It rests on three tracks — psycho-social support, empowerment, and reintegration.
It aims to get ex-detainee children back into school, or into work training programs.
Program director Nader Abu Amsha said: “A trauma might happen once in lif. But here, when it comes to having daily hard experiences like checkpoints, like soldiers around, like settlers attacking people … everything surrounding you might be a trigger for a traumatic event you went through.”
Save the Children and the East Jerusalem YMCA Rehabilitation Program released a report on 11 March about the impact of Israeli arrests and detention on Palestinian children living under Israeli occupation.
The organisations estimate that since 2000, Israel has arrested and detained more than 8000 Palestinian children in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, including some as young as 12.
Handcuffed and blindfolded, the children — who are most often arrested on suspicion of throwing stones — are transported to either Israeli prisons or settlements in the West Bank for interrogation. This almost always take place without the children’s parents or a lawyer present, the report stated.
All Palestinians in the West Bank are subject to Israel’s military courts system, which was set up shortly after Israel began occupying the territory in 1967.
The report said these courts “are not intended to function as a comprehensive legal system” but rather, “must be understood as the ‘judicial arm’ of the occupying power, which means that the emphasis lies more on security than on justice.”
The report also found that nearly all children (98%) were subjected to physical or psychological violence during their arrest and detention. It found that 90% of children suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), experiencing nightmares, bed-wetting, anxiety and other signs of trauma upon their release.
“All of these symptoms can’t be left [alone]; it’s the core of our interests to help them get rid of the psychological impact of the imprisonment and the hard experience they went through,” Abu Amsha said. “Their right is to be rehabilitated.”
For 19-year-old Mouath, another Palestinian teenager who spent eight months in Israel’s Ofer military prison on charge of throwing stones, the rehabilitation process has been beneficial not only for himself, but also for his family and friends, who have seen a positive change.
“I went to school after [I was released], but they refused to take me back. I sat jobless at home,” Mouath said.
“I was in trouble with my parents and my friends all the time. My spirits were down, crushed. I had frequent thoughts about the prison. I was very scared.”
Today, after counseling sessions, he no longer feels afraid. “The occupation is still going on, but now the soldiers don’t bother me,” said Mouath, who now works in automobile electronics.
“I am very much relieved. My problems became less. My psychological hardships and the negative thoughts are gone now.”
[Abridged from Electronic Intifada.]